Life as a...

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MHC restriction

MHC structure

Cross presentation


Immuno 2021

Set meeting with Lewis

The immune system as a network of pathways and players

Innate and adaptive immune crosstalk

Up close: T lymphocytes

Up close: The humoral arm of the immune system

Major immune system challenges

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Final is in

Quiz #1

Quiz #2

PBL presentations

Quiz #3

Group lists

Group lists



Final in

Goals: The student will be fluent in the anatomy of immune system compartments, as well as innate versus adaptive arms and associated immunocytes; display solid knowledge of major cytokines and chemokines.

Keywords: Lymph node, afferent and efferent lymph vessels, bone marrow, thymus, inflammation, self-limiting  |  Cells types: phagocyte, dendritic cell, neutrophil (PMN), macrophage, monocyte, T lymphocyte, T helper cell, B lymphocyte, HEV |  Cytokines and chemokines: IL-1b, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNFa, MCP-1, CCR7




WBC count

Thoracic duct



Goals: The student will display an understanding of the inter-cellular communication between T and B lymphocytes, innate immunocytes and non-immune cells.

Keywords: Thymic cortex and medulla, germinal center, T zone  |  Cells types: professional and non-professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPC and APC), plasma cells  |  Intracellular factors: NF-kB, foxp3  |  Cytokines: IFNg, IL-4  |  Surface molecules: TCR, BCR, CD19, CD20, MHC class I, MHC class II, CD25, CD4, CD8, CD28/B7, CD40/CD40L, Fas/FasL  |  Soluble molecules: Antibodies  |  V(D)J recombination, positive and negative selection, homing, activation, isotype switching, clonal expansion, immune memory

Ag presentation

T cells

B cells


Cytotoxic T cells


Goals: The student will display an understanding of T cell  maturation, immune tolerance and its relation to graft and tumor immunology.

Keywords: Central and peripheral immune tolerance, immune evasion  |  Cells types: Tregs, NK cells, M1- and M2-like macrophages  |  Cytokines: TGFb, IL-10, IL-1Ra  |  Surface molecules: CTLA4, perforin


Ags and Abs


Goals: The student will display an understanding of the structural and physiological attributes of humoral immunity under physiological conditions.

Keywords: Cells types: basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, TH1 TH2 |  Cytokines and chemokines: IL-3, IL-4  |  Molecules: MAC, histamine, immune complexes, light and heavy chains  |  Zymogens, alternative pathway, classic pathway, lectin pathway, opsonization, ADCC, DTH, monoclonal and polyclonal, epitope, isotype, valency, avidity, affinity, allergen

Stronger but riskier

Host defense


Goals: The student will be able to differentiate between appropriate/inappropriate; wanted/unwanted immune responses in the context autoimmunity, immunodeficiency and transplantation immunology, with relevance to therapeutic clinical decisions; cope with immune-related pathologies that extend beyond the syllabus.

Keywords Infection, intracellular and extracellular bacteria, exotoxin, endotoxin, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, alloantigens, xenoantigens, autoantigens, direct and indirect recognognition, hyperacute acute and chronic graft rejection  |  Diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 autoimmune diabetes, graves diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

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Important erratum: In question 3 the correct answer was supposed to be Goodpasture’s glumerulonephritis with anti-basal-membrane autoantibodies! Not post-streptococcal GN which is pure immune complexes. My mistake and I thank all of those who made me that much sharper in the distinction between the two! For now, let me up all your quiz grades by 1 point as I have no way of knowing who deserves what for this, I apologize for the stress it might have caused, and let’s keep our eyes on the bigger target: Thursday’s afternoon adventure!

Q&A lesson

<-- Sadly I’m booked right up till the exam! But I’m online almost all the time, afternoon and evening as well, let me help you via our Q&A page!

<-- Thursday: online for brief replies before 8:15, then 10-11, then possibly noon.

Next online burst of replies in ->

Hope you enjoyed the exam!!! Lewis